Comparison of Inverse Kinematics and Forward Kinematics Methods on Walk Cycle Animation Characters

Afifah Nur Aini, Ema Utami, Suwanto Raharjo


The 3D animation industry is currently growing rapidly, but the process of animating 3D characters is not always fast, because it is often constrained at the animation stage due to the complexity or irregularity of the function of each rig on the 3D character object, therefore it takes a proper rig creation stage to support the animation process that is more efficient in terms of process and time. Kinematics in animation is used for reference when an object is moving. The animation uses a Kinematics approach to display natural results. This research aims to study the level of effectiveness in terms of the time span required to drive the 3D Walk cycle animation using the attached Kinematics & Advanced Kinematics methods. The animation reference used was a standard human Walk cycle with the extent for each part of the body to be animated such as head animation, hand animation, foot animation, and bed animation to complete a walking compilation of animated Walk cycle. The execution of each part is carried out by the inverse kinematics method and then proceed with the advanced kinematics method. Based on the results of the implementation in each section of the walk cycle by comparing the two methods, Inverse Kinematics is an effective method for animating the legs and the head. While the Forward Kinematics method is more effective in animating the hands, body parts, and finishing movement. The results of the comparison show that the level of time effectiveness in human character 3D animation movements using the inverse kinematics method compared to forward kinematics are 31.18% in body animation, 40.46% in foot animation, 13.94% in hand animation, 2.04% in head animation motion, and 7.61% for finishing walk cycle movement.


Kinematics; Forward Kinematics; Effectiveness; 3D; Animation

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)


Amani, N., and A. R. Yuly. 2019. “3D Modeling and Animating of Characters in Educational Game.” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1193(1). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1193/1/012025

Aristidou, A., J. Lasenby, Y. Chrysanthou, and A. Shamir. 2017. “Inverse Kinematics Techniques in Computer Graphics: A Survey.” Computer Graphics Forum 37(6):35–58. DOI: 10.1111/cgf.13310

Arshad, Mohd Rosli, Kim Hae Yoon, Ahmad Azaini Abdul Manaf, and Muhammad Azmin Mohamed Ghazali. 2019. “Physical Rigging Procedures Based on Character Type and Design in 3D Animation.” International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 8(3):4138–47. DOI: 10.35940/ijrte.C5484.098319

Ayusawa, Ko, and Eiichi Yoshida. 2018. “Comprehensive Theory of Differential Kinematics and Dynamics towards Extensive Motion Optimization Framework.” International Journal of Robotics Research 37(13–14):1554–72. DOI: 10.1177/0278364918772893

Bernardina, Gustavo R. D., Tony Monnet, Pietro Cerveri, and Amanda P. Silvatti. 2019. “Moving System with Action Sport Cameras: 3D Kinematics of the Walking and Running in a Large Volume.” PLoS ONE 14(11):1–13.

Bhatti, Zeeshan, Ahsan Abro, Abdul Rehman Gillal, and Mostafa Karbasi. 2018. “Be-Educated: Multimedia Learning through 3D Animation.” ArXiv (December 2017).

Famukhit, Muga Linggar. 2016. “Simulasi Gerak Kepiting Menggunakan Metode Inverse Kinematics Muga Linggar Famukhit, M. Suyanto, Sukoco.” Speed, Journal Engineering, Sentra Penelitian 8(2).

Ge, Kang Teresa. 2000. “Solving Inverse Kinematics Constraint Problems for Highly Articulated Models.”

Heriwati, S. H., B. H. Prilosadoso, B. Pujiono, Suwondo, and A. N. Panindias. 2019. “3D Puppets Animation for Encouraging Character Education and Culture Preservation in Surakarta.” International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology 9(1):1551–55. DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A1341.109119

Pangesti, Annisa Rahayu. 2019. “Analisis Penerapan Metode Inverse Kinematics Untuk Pemodelan Gerakan Karakter Manusia Pada Animasi 2 Dimensi.” Universitas AMIKOM Yogyakarta.

Roberts, Steve. 2013. Character Animation: 2D Skills for Better 3D. London: Taylor & Francis.

Sanna, Andrea, Fabrizio Lamberti, Gianluca Paravati, Gilles Carlevaris, and Paolo Montuschi. 2015. “Virtual Character Animations from Human Body Motion by Automatic Direct and Inverse Kinematics-Based Mapping.” EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies 2(2):e6. DOI: 10.4108/ct.2.2.e6

Starke, Sebastian, Norman Hendrich, and Jianwei Zhang. 2018. “A Forward Kinematics Data Structure for Efficient Evolutionary Inverse Kinematics.” Mechanisms and Machine Science 50(April): 560–68.

Syalabi, Lalu Agam Pramadaya. 2018. “Analisis Fitur Pengembangan ‘Quick Rig’ Pada Autodesk Maya.” Universitas AMIKOM Yogyakarta.

Unzueta, Luis, Manuel Peinado, Ronan Boulic, and Ángel Suescun. 2008. “Full-Body Performance Animation with Sequential Inverse Kinematics.” Graphical Models 70(5):87–104.

Vieten, Manfred M., and Christian Weich. 2020. “The Kinematics of Cyclic Human Movement.” PLoS ONE 15(3):1–19.

Yu, Yang, Jucheng Yang, Xiaofei Zan, Jiangang Huang, and Xiangbo Zhang. 2017. “Research of Simulation in Character Animation Based on Physics Engine.” International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting 2017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:       


ISSN 2442-4528 (online) | ISSN 1979-925X (print)
Published by : Universitas Amikom Purwokerto
Jl. Let. Jend. POL SUMARTO Watumas, Purwonegoro - Purwokerto Telp (0281) 623321 Fax (0281) 621662

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.